Doti Wahyuningsih, Helmin Elyani, Dini Sri Damayanti, Muhammad Yusuf Musthafa, Vina Zahirotul Izzah



Background. Hyperglycemia was reported to harm liver and induce metabolic inbalance. The tree bark of Cinnamomum burmannii (C. burmanii) was potential as anti-hiperglycemic agent. The bark was rich with secondary metabolites that may lead to possess other advantages for diabetes.

Objectives. To study the effect of aqueos extract of C.burmannii (AEC) on liver and metabolic condition by measuring necrotic hepatocytes, serum urea and uric acid levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (AIDRs).

Methods. Three groups of fasted rats (free allowed to water) were intraperitoneally injected with 150 mg/Kg BW in 1 ml normal saline 6 hours prior to intraperitoneal injection of 2 ml 10% glucose to induce AIDRs, the animals were allowed to 5% glucose solution for 24 hours afterward. The AIDRs were treated with 0.5 ml, 1ml, and 2 ml of AEC respectively for 2 weeks. Hematoxyline-Eosine-stained liver slices were observed for necrotic hepatocytes by light microscope. Serum urea and uric acid levels were measured by Glutamate dehydrogenase and Uricase-PAP methods respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by LSD test, p values of < 0.05 were considered to be significant.


The given doses of AEC lowered urea and uric acid serum levels of AIDRs (p = 0.000) which approximated to the non diabetic ratss serum levels (p > 0.05). Except the smallest dose, the remaining doses of AEC reduced necrotic hepatocytes number in AIDRs (p = 0.000).


Aqueos extract of C.burmannii protected hepatocytes and corrected serum urea and uric acid levels of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Keywords: Cinnamomum burmanii; diabetes; necrotic hepatocytes; serum urea: serum uric acid.

Full Text:



Tuomi T, Santoro N, Caprio S, Cai M, Weng J, Groop L. The many faces of diabetes: a disease with increasing

Heterogeneity. Lancet 2014; 383: 108494

Chung, S.S., Ho, E.C., Lam, K.S., Chung, S.K.. Contribution of Polyol Pathway to

Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: S233S236.

Ramasamy R, Vannucci SJ, Du Yan SS, Herold K, Fang Yan S , and Schmidt AM. Advanced glycation end products and RAGE: a common thread in aging, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and inflammation. Glycobiology 2005; 15 (7); 16R28R.

Ucar F, Sezer S, Erdogan S, Akyol S, Armutcu F, Akyol O. The relationship between oxidative stress and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Its effects on the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Redox report 2013; 18 (4):127-133

Cicho?-Lach H andMichalak A. Oxidative stress as a crucial factor in liver diseases. World J Gastroenterol 2014 July 7; 20(25): 8082-8091.

Masarone M, Rosato V, Aglitti A, Bucci T, Caruso R, Salvatore T. Liver biopsy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Steatohepatitis represents the sole feature of liver damage.

PLoS ONE 2017; 12(6): 1-10. e0178473. |

Krup V, Vilaxana J, Hegde P L, Harini A. Anti Diabetic Herbs In Ayurveda: An Update. Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. 2014;3(12): 489496.

Ndam LM, Mih AM, Fongod AGN, Tening AS, Tonjock RK, Enang JE. Phytochemical screening of the bioactive compounds in twenty (20) Cameroonian medicinal plants. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci 2014;3(12): 768-778.

Gargouria M, Magnb C, and El Feki A. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, liver damage and dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rat are prevented by Spirulina supplementation. Nutrition Research 2016, doi:


Gruenwald J, Freder J, and Armbruester N: Cinnamon and Health, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2010; 50:9: 822-834.

Chen P, Sun J, and Ford P. Differentiation of the Four Major Species of Cinnamons (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. cassia, and C. loureiroi) Using a Flow Injection Mass Spectrometric (FIMS) Fingerprinting Method. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2014;62: 2516?2521.

Safithri M, Yasni S, Bintang M, Ranti AS.Toxicity Study of Antidiabetics Functional Drink of Piper crocatum and Cinnamomum burmannii. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences 2012; 19 (1): 31-36.

Muhammad DRA, Praseptiangga D, Van de Walle D, Dewettinck K. Interaction between natural antioxidants derived from cinnamon and cocoa in binary and complex mixtures. Food Chemistry 2017, doi:

United sates Food and Drugs Administration (FDA). Title 21--Food And DrugsChapter I--Food And Drug AdministrationDepartment Of Health And Human Services Subchapter B--Food For Human Consumption (Continued). [Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 21, Volume 3][Revised as of April 1, 2017]

[Cite: 21cfr182.10]

Rao PV and Gan SH. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant.Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2014, Article ID 642942,12pages.

Sampson EJ, Baird MA, Burtls CA, Smith EM, Witte DL, and Bayse DD. A Coupled-Enzyme Equilibrium Method for MeasuringUrea in Serum: Optimization and Evaluation of the AACC Study Group on Urea1 Candidate Reference.

MethodClinicalchemistry 1980;26 (7): 816-826

Shah NA and Khan MR. Antidiabetic Effect of Sida cordata in Alloxan Induced

Diabetic Rats. BioMed Research International Volume 2014, Article ID 671294, 15 pages

Lucchesi AN, Cassettari LL, and Spadella CT. Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Causes Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Liver that Resemble the Natural History of Chronic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans. Journal of Diabetic Research 2015; Article ID 494578: 11 pages.

Perdana ANV, Wahyuningsih D, dan PurnomoY. EkstrakKayumanis (Cinnamomum burmanii) Menurunkan Kadar Enzim iNOS Serum dari Tikus Wistar Diabetes. JIMR 2017;1(1): 77-82

Fo rstermann U and Sessa WC. Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function. European Heart Journal 2012;33:829837.

Koyagura N, Kumar VH, Jamadar MG, Huilgo SV, Nayak N, Yendigeri SM, et al. Antidiabetic and hepatoprotective activities of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharma-col and Clin Sci 2013;2:33-40.

Ojebadejo S, obong Bassey E, Oyewunmi A, Archibong V, and Usoro E.

Histopathological study of the liver of Alloxan induced diabetic rats and macerated Allium sativum (garlic) Ameliorative Effect. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences; 4(34) 2014, 72-77.

Ervina M., NawuY.E., and Esar S.Y. Comparison of in vitro antioxidant activity of infusion, extract and fractions

of Indonesian Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii) bark. International Food Research Journal 2016; 23(3): 1346-1350

Qin LV., Xian-FM., Fang-FH,Chen S, Hua S, Jing X, et al. High Serum Uric Acid and Increased Risk of Type 2Diabetes: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. PLoSONE 2013 8(2): e56864. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056864

Ogbera AO and Azenabor AO. Hyperuricaemia and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 DM.

Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2010; 2(24):1-7

Yili Xu, Jiayu Zhu, Li Gao, Yun Liu, Jie Shen, Chong Shen et al. Hyperuricemia as an Independent Predictor of Vascular

Complications and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Meta-Analysis.

PLoS ONE 2013; 8(10): e78206. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078206

Ching CL, Pi CL, Mei YL, Szu CC, Shyi JS, Pi JH, et al. Association of Serum Uric Acid Concentration with Diabetic Retinopathy and Albuminuria in Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016; 17: 1248

Shuai Yu, Ying Chen, Xu Hou, Donghua Xu. Kui Che, Changgui Li, et al. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Mol Neurobiol 2016; 53:10451051

Pourghasem M, Nasiri E, and Shafi H.

Early Renal Histological Changes in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

Int J Mol Cell Med Winter 2014; Vol 3 No 1: 11 -15.

Das J and Sil PC. Taurine ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetic renal injury, oxidative stress-related signaling pathways and apoptosis in rats.

Amino Acids 2012; 43:15091523

Shah P, Bjornstad P, Johnson RJ. Hyperuricemia as a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes and diabetic Nephropathy. J. Bras. Nefrol. 2016: 38(4) : 1-2. So Paulo DOI: 10.5935/0101-2800.20160061

Gustafsson D and Unwin R. The pathophysiology of hyperuricaemia and its

possible relationship to cardiovascular disease, morbidity and mortality.

BMC Nephrology 2013;14:164.

Choi HK, Curhan G: Soft drinks, fructose consumption, and the risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study. Br Med J 2008, 336:309312.

Choi HK, Mount DB, Reginato AM: Pathogenesis of Gout.

Ann Intern Med

, 143(7):499516.

Idakwoji PA, Akuba OB, Elah OS. Co-Administration of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Moringa Oleifera and Metformin Reverses Polyphagia,Polydipsia and Stabilizes Body Weight in Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Rats.

Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen 2015; Med. Volume 4, Issue 9:193202.

Ewenighi C, Dimkpa U, Onyeanusi J. Onoh L, Onoh G, EzeugwuU. Estimation of Glucose Level and Body Weight in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rat Treated with Aqueous Extract of Garcinia Kola Seed. Ulutas Med J 2015;1(2):26-30

Vu?ak J, Kati? M, Bielen I, Vrdoljak D, Lali? DI, Kranj?evi? K, et al. Association between hyperuricemia, prediabetes,

and prehypertension in the Croatian adult

population - a cross-sectional study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2012; 12:117

Li C, Hsieh MC, and Chang SJ. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and hyperuricemia. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2013;25:210216

Weiner D, Mitch WE, and Sands JM. Urea and Ammonia Metabolism and the Control

of Renal Nitrogen Excretion. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ?: cccccc, ???, 2014

Bamanikar SA, Bamanikar AA, Arora A. Study of Serum urea and Creatinine in Diabetic and non-diabetic patients in in a tertiary teaching hospital. The Journal of Medical Research 2016; 2(1): 12-15

Anjaneyulu M and Chopra K. Quercetin, An Anti-Oxidant Bioflavonoid,

Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy In Rats.

Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 2004;31:244248.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


JIMR - Journal of Islamic Medicine Research is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License